Reversing Simatic S7 PLC Programs

This article is a guide to reverse engineer Simatic S7 PLC program blocks. 1

Last revision: May 10 2022.


PLC (Programmable Logic Controllers) are specialized computers designed to control industrial systems having real-time processing requirements. They take inputs provided by sensors and generate outputs for actuators. As programmable devices, they execute user-provided software and therefore are susceptible to some classes of software attacks. The most publicized demonstration of that was made by the Stuxnet malware, whose end-goal was to take control, damage, and destroy arrays of centrifuges in a uranium enrichment plant. The analysis of the malicious PLC payload proved to be a long and tedious road 2, and up to this day, tooling and knowledge related to those systems remain limited relative to broadly-known architectures such as x86 or arm.

We attempt to bridge some of this gap by providing S7 analysis modules for JEB Pro. This article shows how they can be used to acquire, analyze, disassemble and decompile PLC program blocks intended to run on Siemens Simatic S7-300 and S7-400 devices, a very popular line of PLC used to operate industrial processes.


Throughout the rest of this document, the terms PLC, S7 or S7 PLC are used interchangeably to refer to S7-300 or S7-400 PLC devices. Newer devices in the S7 product line, namely the S7-1200 and S7-1500, are not supported by this JEB extension and won’t be considered here.

Models of Simatic S7-300 (left side) and Simatic S7-400 (right side) – Image (c) Siemens

The official IDE used to program S7 PLC is called Step 7. Step 7 may be used as-is or as a part of the larger software suite Totally Integrated Automation (TIA).

A PLC program is made of blocks, such as data blocks, function blocks, and organization blocks. In this document, the term program may be understood as (collection of) blocks.

A program is downloaded to a PLC from a Programming Station, that is, a Windows-based computer running the Step 7 editor. When a program is retrieved from a PLC, it is uploaded to the programming station.

The assembly language STL (Statements List) and its bytecode counterpart, MC7, are sometimes used interchangeably.

Finally, the names Simatic, Step 7, and Totally Integrated Automation are trademarks of Siemens AG (“Siemens”).

Primer on S7

This section briefly presents what S7 programs are, their structure, as well as lower level details important to know from a reverse engineering perspective.

Programming Environment

S7 PLC are programmed using Step 7 or TIA’s Step 7 (TIA is a platform required to program the most recent S7 devices), the IDE running on a Windows computer referred to as the Programming Device. Once the program is written, it can be downloaded onto a physical PLC or a simulator program (such as PLCSIM, part of Step 7).


A PLC program is a collection of blocks. Blocks have a type (data, code, etc.) and a number.

  • Data blocks:
    • User data blocks are referred to as DB if they are shared by all code, or DI if they belong to a code block
    • System data blocks are named SDB
  • Code blocks, also called logic blocks:
    • Organization Blocks (OB) are program entry points, called by the firmware
      • The principal OB is OB1, the program’s main entry point. It is executed repeatedly by the firmware.
      • Other OB can be programmed and called when interruptions happen, exceptions occur, timers go off, etc.
    • Function blocks (FB) and System Function blocks (SFB) are routines operating on a provided data block, called the instance data block (DI)
    • Function (FC) and System Functions (SFC) are routines that do not require a data block to operate

The distinction between FB and FC is subtle. Any FB could be written to perform equivalently as an FC, and vice versa. They exist as an easy way to distinguish between a function working as-is, like a C routine would (FC), and a function working on a collection of pseudo-encapsulated attributes, like a C++ class method would (FB).

A sample program consisting of two OBs, one FB and its associated DB. Two system functions are used.
A larger program designed to run on a S7-300 CPU 314.

There are various ways to write PLC code. Programmers may choose to write ladder diagrams (LAD) or function block diagrams (FBD); complex processes may be better expressed in statements list (STL) or in a high-level Pascal-like language (SCL). Regardless of source languages, the program is compiled to MC7 bytecode, whose specifications are not public.

A piece of MC7 bytecode is packaged in a block, along with some metadata (authoring information, flags, etc.) and the interface of the block. The interface of a data block is the block definition itself, a structure type. The interface of a logic block is its set of inputs, outputs, local variables, as well as static variables in the case of a FB, or return value in the case of a FC.

Example code of a Function Block (FB1000) programmed in STL and an associated data block DB1000. Note that both blocks share the same interface (IN/OUT/IN_OUT/STAT(=static)) data. The TEMP data section of the FB holds transient locals.

MC7 Code

PLC may be programmed using a variety of methods, such as:

  • Ladder logic (LAD)
  • Function block diagrams (FBD)
  • Assembly-like statement list (STL)
  • Structured control language (SCL, a high-level Pascal-like language)
  • Other methods exist

Step 7 compiles all source codes to MC7 bytecode, a representation that will be translated and executed by a virtual machine running on the PLC.

STL was relatively well-documented up until the S7-400 3. However, the binary specifications are not public at the time of writing. 4

The MC7 instructions map STL statements, with several notable exceptions (e.g. STL’s CALL is translated to UC/CC with additional code to prepare the Address Register pointer, opened Data Block, set up parameters on the Locals memory area in the case of FC/SFC call, etc.).

Execution Environment

The execution environment for MC7 bytecode is the following:

  • Memory areas:
    • Digital input, called I (0 to 65536 addressable bytes)
    • Digital output, called Q (0 to 65536 addressable bytes)
    • Global memory, called M (0 to 65536 addressable bytes)
    • Local memory, called L (0 to 65536 addressable bytes)
      • A special area V references the local memory of the caller method, i.e. if function f1 calls function f2, V in f2 is L of f1
    • Shared data block bytes via the DB1 register, called DB
    • Instance data block bytes via the DB2 register, called DI
    • Timers, called T (256 addressable 16-bit timers)
    • Counters, called C (256 addressable 16-bit counters)
  • Registers:
    • A program counter PC, not directly accessible
      • The PC is modified by intra-routine branching instructions (JU/JL/JC/…)
    • A 16-bit Status Word register (only the 9 lower bits are used), from #0 to #8:
      • FC: First-Check: if 0, indicates that the boolean instruction to be executed is the first in a sequence of logic operations to be performed (“logic operation string”)
      • RLO: Result of Logic Operation: holds the result of the last executed bit logic operation
      • STA: Status: value of the current boolean address
      • OR: Determine how binary-and and binary-or are combined
      • OS: Overflow Stored: copy of the OV bit
      • OV: Overflow: set by integer/floating-point instruction on overflow
      • CC0/CC1: Condition Codes: updated by arithmetic instructions and comparison instructions (see arithmetic and branching instructions for details on how CC0/CC1 are set and used)
      • BR: Binary Result: can be used to store the RLO (via SAVE); is used by system functions (SFC/SFB) as a success(1)/error(0) indicator
    • Two 32-bit address registers (AR1/AR2)
      • The address register hold a MC7 4-byte pointer (see section on MC7 Types). The area part of the pointer may be ignored (for area-internal access), or may be used (for area-crossing access)
    • Two or four 32-bit accumulators (ACCU1/ACCU2, ACCU3/ACCU4 optionally)
    • Two data block registers, not directly accessible
Translation in JEB

JEB’s MC7 plugin mirrors the execution environment, and adds several synthetic (artificial) registers to help with MC7 code representation and code translation to IR for the decompiler. The processor details can be examined in the GUI client (menu Native, handler Processor Registers).

Registers defined by the MC7 processor plugin

Instruction Set

Familiarity with STL is a topic that PLC reverse engineers will need to get familiar with. However, a complete and detailed guide to general STL programming is outside the scope of this document. Specific STL instructions will be discussed as need-be.

The instructions are grouped into the following categories:

  • bit logic: not/and/or/xor/and-not/or-not/xor-not, RLO access, etc.
  • word logic: and/or/xor on words
  • integer ops: add/sub/mul/div/mod, on 16- or 32-bit ints
  • shift/rotate: self-explanatory
  • floating ops: iee754 fp32 operations
  • comparison: compare and set CC0/CC1
  • conversion: int to float, float to int, signed extensions, etc.
  • data block: open data blocks as shared/instance, etc.
  • load/transfer: read and write the accus and address regs
  • accumulator: specific accumulators instructions
  • logic control: jumps, unconditional or CC0/CC1-based
  • program control: sub-routine calls to FB/FC/SFB/SFC
  • counter/timer: manipulate timers and counters

A summarized html version 5 of the reference STL documentation can be found on our website:

If you are looking for a quick reference on some opcode, this page may be more handy than the full reference manual.

Instructions carry 0 or 1 operand. The operand type can be one of the following:

  • Access to some area bytes or a direct immediate:
    L MB 300: load the global byte at address 300 (decimal) into ACCU1
    L L#1000: load the double-integer value 1000 into ACCU1
  • Indirect access, optionally using AR1/AR2:
    • Area-internal: the area is hardcoded in the instruction (below, I)
      = I [MD 100]: assign RLO to the input bit at X, where X is the pointer located at offset 100 of the global memory (M)
      X I [AR1, P#30.4]: binary-xor RLO with the input bit located at *(AR1+30.4)
    • Area-crossing: the target area is determined dynamically
      AN [AR1, P#10.0]: binary-and-not RLO with the bit located at *(AR1+10.0), the target area is specified in the MSB of AR1
      T QW [AR2, P#2.0]: transfer ACCU1L to the word located at *(AR2+2.0)
  • A bit operation:
    A I 2.0: binary-and RLO with the input bit 2.0 (bit #0 of byte 2)
    O Q 40.4: binary-or RLO with the output bit 40.4
  • A branching immediate, in word units:
    JU 15: jump to “instruction address + 2 *15”
  • Parameter access (for FC calls):
    T Z#6.0: transfer ACCU1 to the third parameter
  • Implicit operands, zero or one:
    NOP 0
    NOP 1

Interestingly, some instructions encode the type of operand immediate (this allows for unambiguous STL code rendering). Below is a list of examples with the L instruction, which loads ACCU1 with an immediate value. Note that the immediates are encoded big-endian:

TYPE      INSTRUCTION          BYTECODE      IMM. (BE, 8- 16- or 32- bit)

bin32     L 2#10101010         300200aa      0x00aa

dec16     L 1000               300303e8      0x03e8
dec32     L L#1000000          3803000f4240  0x000f4240
hex8      L B#16#45            2845          0x45
hex16     L W#16#6677          30076677      0x6677
hex32     L DW#16#11223344     380711223344  0x11223344

float32   L 3.14               38014048f5c3  0x4048f5c3

char1     L 'z'                3005007a      0x007a
char2     L 'ab'               30056162      0x6162
char4     L 'abcd'             380561626364  0x61626364

bytes2    L B#(3, 6)           30060306      0x0306
bytes4    L B#(3, 6, 7, 8)     380603060708  0x03060708

bcd       L C#345              30080345      0x345

pointer   L P#100.2            380400000322  0x00000322 (area NOT specified)
pointer   L P#M 10000.0        380483013880  0x83013880 (area specified)

time      L T#10s31ms          38090000272f  0x0000272f
date      L D#2022-4-25        300a2e1a      0x2e1a
tod       L TOD##16:20:59.100  380b03821e5c  0x03821e5c
s5t       L S5T#1m40s          300c2100      0x2100

The types used in STL or MC7 are described in the next section.

Bit operations, RLO and FC

Newcomers to STL may be baffled by this type of code:

// assume a new routine
A I 0.0  // 1. binary-and
A I 0.1  // 2. binary-and
= Q 1.0  // 3. assign the result (in RLO) to output bit 1.0

If "A <SRC>" means "RLO = RLO & <SRC>", what does line (1) do, and does it depend on the value of RLO at (1)? The general case answer is no. A more precise translation of A would be:

if FC == 0:
  FC = 1

If the FC flag is false, RLO takes the value of the source bit. What is the value of FC then? At the beginning of a program, it is false (because the sub-routine dispatch instructions – such as UC – set it to 0). It is also set to false after an end-of-logic-string operation, such as = (assign the RLO to a destination).

Data and Interfaces

Every block, code or data, has an interface that defines…

  • for a data block: the structure of the data block itself
  • for a logic block: its parameters for invocation

FC Block Interface

The interface of an FC block consists of at most 4 sections. The order matters.

  • IN: Input parameters
  • RET: single return value
  • IN_OUT: input/output parameters
  • OUT: output parameters (any number of returned values)

FB Block Interface

The interface of an FB block consists of at most 4 sections (they are not the same as FC’s though). The order matters as well, since it determines the memory layout of the associated DB.

  • IN: input parameters
  • OUT: output parameters
  • IN_OUT: input/output parameters
  • STATIC: the static data (held by the associated instance DB, and laid out right after the parameter data, that is, IN/OUT/IN_OUT)

Local Area

The interface of a logic block may also defines a TEMP area, holding temporary local variables (area L). Note that the local storage, just like any other storage, may be accessed without the need to be defined in an interface. Example:

L LB 3  ; load the byte at 0x3 in local storage into ACCU1
T QB 4  ; transfer ACCU1 to the output byte at 0x4

In practice, L-variables are going to be defined for most user-generated code. However, many synthetic statements generated by the compiler for behind-the-scene operations use L-variables that are located after what’s defined by the interface of a logic block.

The binary interfaces located in compiled blocks do not carry the names used when defining those interfaces.


The variables defined in an interface belong to three general categories:

  • Elementary types: primitive types not exceeding 4 bytes (e.g. BYTE, WORD, INT)
  • Complex types: compound types (e.g. ARRAYs) and large types (e.g. DATE_AND_TIME)
  • Parameter types: block number, timer, counter, pointers or references
=> Elementary types: ("normal" types)
BOOL           1  single bit stored on 1 byte
BYTE           8  unsigned integer
CHAR           8  ascii character
WORD          16  unsigned integer
INT           16  signed integer
DWORD         32  unsigned integer
DINT          32  signed integer
REAL          32  ieee-754 fp32 number
DATE          16  date (number of days since Jan 1 1990)
S5TIME        16  elapsed time in [0, 2h46m30s] (*)
TIME          32  elapsed time in ms, range +/- ~24d20h
TIME_OF_DAY   32  time of day in ms since midnight

=> Complex types: ("normal" types, continued)
DATE_AND_TIME 64  timestamp (*)
STRING[n]     var strings, 16 to 2048 bits, n in [0,254] (*)
ARRAY         var N-dimensional arrays (*)
STRUCT        var structures

=> Parameter types: ("special" types, used in IN/OUT/IN_OUT sections)
POINTER       48  pointers (*)
ANY           80  pointers with size (*)
TIMER         16  timer number
COUNTER       16  counter number
BLOCK_FB      16  FB number
BLOCK_FC      16  FC number
BLOCK_DB      16  DB number
BLOCK_SDB     16  SDB number

(*) details follow

JEB generates equivalent native types. They carry the same names and may be examined with the Type Editor in the GUI (menu Native, handler Type Editor).

Most types are self-explanatory. A few types require additional information.

S5TIME type

The S5TIME type is essentially a BCD (binary coded decimal) value ranging from 0 to 999 (in 1/10s), with a multiplier from 1 to 1000, stored on a word. The maximum value is therefore 9990 seconds, which is 2h46m30s.

Layout of a S5TIME object in memory – Image (c) Siemens AG


This type, also referred to as DT, holds a date/time value (similar to another type S7TIME (described later), although the S7TIME uses 6-byte instead of 8). It is limited to dates after Jan 1 1984. Each component of the DT is BCD-coded:

Byte     Value    Description
0        Year     90-99=>1990-1999, 00-89=>2000-2089
1        Month    1 to 12
2        Day      1 to 31
3        Hour     0 to 23
4        Minute   0 to 59
5        Second   0 to 59
6 (hi)   Millis2  0 to 9 (*100)
6 (lo)   Millis1  0 to 9 (*10)
7 (hi)   Millis0  0 to 9
7 (lo)   DoW      1 to 7 (1=Sunday)

Examples of encodings:

90010100 00000002: DT#1990-1-1:0:0:0.0
22031406 13281232: DT#2022-3-14-6:13:28.123

Array types

Array types of single- or multi-dimensional types whose element type may be any primitive of complex type, with the exception of ARRAY.

Note that it is common practice for PLC programmers to use non-zero based arrays, e.g. ARRAY[1 ..10, 1..20 ] of INT. The first element of this two-dimensional array would be [1,1]. Therefore the translated code to access an element [x,y] in memory is slightly more elaborate than RowLength*x+y, it would be RowLength*(x-1)+(y-1).

String types

The string types are fixed-length arrays of single-byte characters. They can hold from 0 to 254 characters. The layout in memory is as follows:

M L A(0) ... A(n-1)
  M is a byte holding the maximum length
  L is the current string length (L <= M)
  A(i) are the string bytes

Example of a STRING[8]:
  08 05 41 41 41 41 41 00 00 00
would be the 5-char string 'AAAAA', which can accommodate up to 8 characters

The string types are STRING[0], STRING[1], STRING[2], …, STRING[254]. The STRING type is an alias for STRING[254].

Just like other complex types (arrays, structs, DT), string types are always 16-byte aligned in memory.


The pointer type (referred to as MC7 pointer in this document) is used to reference the address of a variable. It is 6-byte long, and made of two parts:

  • The WORD at 0 is a DB number if the data is stored in a data block (else it is 0), that is, the basic pointer (see below) references a DB/DI block
  • The DWORD at 2 is a 4-byte address (referred to as MC7 address)

A MC7 address has the following bit layout:

  A is the area code
  B the address in bytes [0,65535]
  X the bit position in [0,7] 

The area codes are as follows: (reference: S7.AreaType)

0x00: no area
0x81: I (digital input)
0x82: Q (digital output)
0x83: M (global memory)
0x84: DB (shared DB)
0x85: DI (instance DB)
0x86: L (local data, i.e. the stack)
0x87: V (previous local data, i.e. the caller's stack)

The diagram below summarizes the memory layout of a POINTER type.

Layout of a 6-byte POINTER object in memory – Image (c) Siemens

The JEB native types associated with MC7 pointer types are:

  • For the 6-byte MC7 pointer type (full structure): the associated JEB native types for such objects are named MC7PTR_xxx
  • For the 4-byte MC7 address types: the associated JEB native types for such objects are named MC7P_xxx

Examples of encodings:

P# 100.0      :      00000320 (MC7 address)
P#M 100.0     : 0000 83000320 (MC7 pointer)
P#I 0.7       : 0000 81000007 (MC7 pointer)
P#V 1.0       : 0000 81000008 (MC7 pointer)
P#DB8.DBX10.2 : 0008 84000052 (MC7 pointer)

ANY type

ANY for common types

The ANY type, in its common form, is the combination of a pointer with a pointed non-special element type and a repetition count. It allows pointing an area of memory (including memory located in data blocks) with bounds, e.g. 7 DWORDs at memory address 100.0.

It is 10-byte long:

  • The first 4 bytes contain the pointed data type code and the repetition counter
  • The remaining 6 bytes are the POINTER bytes

Format of ANY for normal types:

10 CC RR RR, followed by a POINTER (see above)
- C is the data type code (see below)
- R is the repetition count

The data type code may be one of: (refer to S7.DataType.getId())

0x01 BOOL
0x02 BYTE
0x03 CHAR
0x04 WORD
0x05 INT
0x06 DWORD
0x07 DINT
0x08 REAL
0x09 DATE

The diagram represents the ANY type layout for common types:

Layout of an ANY data type for common types – Image (c) Siemens

Examples of encodings:

P#M 50.0 BYTE 10        : 10 02 000A 0000 83000190
P#DB10.DBX10.0 S5TIME 5 : 10 0C 0005 000A 84000080
ANY for special types

The ANY type is also used to provide or receive “any” data type. It is not just a “pointer with a pointed size”. That means that special types like counters, timers, or block numbers, may be specified as well. In this case, the format of ANY is different:

Format of ANY for special types:
  0x10 CC 00 00 00 01 00 00 00 00 NN NN
- CC is the data type code
  0x17 BLOCK_FB
  0x18 BLOCK_FC
  0x19 BLOCK_DB
  0x1D TIMER
- NN is the block/timer/counter number
- note that the repetition count is set to be 1
  a single item may be provided by this type format
- note that there is no offset, as they are N/A for the special types

The diagram below is another way to visualize the ANY type layout for special types:

Layout of an ANY data type for special types – Image (c) Siemens

Examples of encodings:

Passing FC9 to an ANY parameter : 10 18 0001 0000 00000009
Passing T2  to an ANY parameter : 10 1D 0001 0000 00000002

Reversing S7 Programs

JEB Pro can be used to reverse one or several PLC blocks making up a full program.

Binary blocks

Internally, Step 7 manipulates PLC blocks as binary blobs whose formats are officially undocumented. At least two formats appear to exist:

  1. Binary blocks used by Step 7 internal primitives, which exist inside the Step 7 program memory.
  2. Binary blocks encoded in network packets, used when uploading or downloading blocks from/to the PLC.

Both formats are supported by JEB (reference: interface IS7Block). Below is their binary specifications. Note the following:

  • Some parts may be unknown or incorrect (noted ‘?’)
  • Bytes are 8-bit, words are 16-bit, dwords are 32-bit long.
  • The s7time type uses 6 bytes and is encoded as follows:
  B: big-endian WORD, number of days since Jan 1 1984
  A: big-endian DWORD, number of milliseconds in the days
     (range: 0 to 86400000)
  00 00 EA 60 00 01 represents the timestamp Jan 2 1984 00:01:00.000

Format 1 (internal, LE)

The header is 0x4E bytes in length. There is no trailer. Integers are encoded little-endian.

The JEB native type for this type is S7_BLOCK1_HEADER.

offset      type      description
00          word      source language id (see S7.LangType)
02          word      block type id (see S7.BlockType)
04          word      block number
06          word      format and/or version (?)
08          dword     total block size (=0x4E+S1+S2+S3)
0C          dword     S1= payload size in bytes (*)
10          dword     S2= interface size in bytes
14          dword     S3= ? size in bytes
18          word      ?
1A          s7time    last modification of the block
20          s7time    last modification of the interface
26          dword     key
2A          char[8]   author name
32          char[8]   family name
3A          char[8]   block name
42          byte      block version (major.minor)
43          byte      ?
44          word      crc
46          word      ?
48          word      ?
4A          word      ?
4C          word      ?
4E          byte[S1]  payload
4E+S1       byte[S2]  interface
4E+S1+S2    byte[S3]  ?
4E+S1+S2+S3 -

The payload is:

  • For a logic block: the MC7 code
  • For a data block: the current (stored) data bytes

Format 2 (network, BE)

Both header and trailers are 0x24 bytes in length. Integers are encoded big-endian.

The equivalent JEB native types are S7_BLOCK2_HEADER and S7_BLOCK2_TRAILER.

offset      type      description
00          word      magic ('pp')
02          byte      source language id (see S7.LangType)
03          byte      block type id (see S7.BlockType)
04          word      block number
08          dword     total block size
0C          dword     key
10          s7time    last modification of the block
16          s7time    last modification of the interface
1C          word      interface size in bytes
1E          word      ? length
20          word      ? length
22          word      payload size in bytes
24          byte[]    payload bytes
24+S1       byte[]    interface bytes
24+S1+S2    -         trailer, see below

The trailer is defined as:

offset      type      description
00          char[8]   author name
08          char[8]   family name
10          char[8]   block name
18          byte      block version (major.minor)
19          byte      ?
1A          word      crc
1C          word      ?
1E          word      ?
20          word      ?
22          word      ?
24          -

Block Acquisition

JEB can acquire blocks of type (1), living in the Step 7 editor program memory. Fire up the Step 7 editor, upload blocks in your Step 7 project, then start JEB, open the File menu, Acquire Simatic S7 Blocks handler.

Menu File, Handler Acquire Simatic S7 Blocks

The acquisition widget will show up. It will list binary blocks found in the Step 7 editor memory. You can save some or all of them as binary files or import them directly into a newly-created project.

S7 Block Acquisition widget showing the inspection results of a live instance of Step 7

Of course, PLC blocks may be collected by other third-party means, such as a network sniffer during upload/download, or by a memory scanner.

S7 Analysis Projects

To create a project, either acquire blocks (as described in the above section) or use the File/Open handler in the GUI client to load up a block or archive of blocks:

  • A single block file should have the .s7blk extension in order to be treated by JEB as a S7 PLC block.
  • A collection of blocks (the most likely scenario) should be placed in a zip archive having a .s7zip extension. All blocks inside the archive will be treated by the plugin.

IMPORTANT: To decompile a collection of blocks, zip them in an archive and rename it with “.s7zip” extension.

In this example, an archive (blocks.s7zip) containing 20 blocks was loaded into JEB.

A new project will display the following minimal node hierarchy:

  • The project node (top node)
  • The artifact node representing the input file (in the above example, blocks.s7zip)
  • The simatic_s7 container unit node (under the artifact), representing the virtual container for all blocks
  • The simatic_mc7 code unit node (under the container unit node), representing a machine-like view of the code and data, mapped in a unified virtual memory segment
  • Other unit nodes may be present, such as:
    • Interface definition text unit nodes for all blocks
    • A decompiler unit node under the simatic_mc7 image unit

Container Unit

The container unit, of type simatic_s7, holds the blocks, parses them and decides where their code and data will be mapped in the child unit of type simatic_mc7. Note that this way of processing blocks is not related to how blocks are processed by a PLC. It is simply the plugin’s way to organize the blocks into an entity that fits within JEB’s public interfaces and representation models of plugins adhering to the native code analysis framework.

The Segments view of a simatic_s7 unit, showing how block bytes will be mapped in a virtual memory object

As can be seen in the “Segments” view of the container unit:

  • The MC7 bytecode of code blocks (OB, FC, FB) are mapped in individual segments named .code_<BlockName> (where <BlockName> consists of the block type appended with the block number, e.g. DB1000, FC1100, OB85)
  • The payload bytes of data blocks (DB) are mapped in individual segments named .data_<BlockName>
  • The memory areas I, Q, G, C, and T are also mapped as separate segments, respectively named .globals, .inputs, .outputs, .counters, .timers

Optional segments .blk_<BlockName> holding the raw bytes of of PLC blocks may be created for informational purposes, but this option is disabled by default.

The base address used for mapping is 0x100000 (=BASE). In most cases, the MC7 codes will be found at address BASE+0x10. The data blocks will be mapped at BASE+0x10000, BASE+0x20000, etc. since a data block contains at most 65536 bytes of addressable bytes. Other segments (for M, I, Q, C, T areas) are also 0x1000-aligned and mapped after the data blocks.

Image Unit

The image unit, whose default name is “simatic_mc7 image”, owns a virtual memory object mapping the various segments described in the previous section. Those segments represent different parts of blocks (MC7 bytecode, data block bytes, memory areas, etc.).

Each segment is prefixed with block metadata information for convenience (names, timestamps, versions, etc.). Keep in my mind that most of this information is purely informative and should not be taken as-is: An attacker may manually edit block headers and change, for example, authorship information or timestamps.

In the example below, we can look at the MC7 code of FC2, who was mapped in a segment “.code_FC2”. Most of the code is standard STL code. Some instructions and idioms are not (e.g. UC FC, param-access instructions), they will be mentioned later.

Disassembled MC7 bytecode of a Function Block

The unified virtual memory also holds data block bytes. Below, one can see that DB888 was mapped at virtual address 0x10000 by the analyzer.

Data bytes of DB888

Parsing Options

When creating a new project, parsing options will be presented to the user.

S7 plugin parser options.

The currently available options are:

DisassembleCode: true to disassemble the code. Keep this option on unless code examination or decompilation is not necessary.

MapRawBlocksAtZero: true to map the raw bytes of blocks before mapping their payload (code or data). It may be useful to examine very specific bits not rendered as metadata in the various description strings present throughout the disassembly

A FC block (binary format 1, internal) whose raw bytes were mapped at address 0 in a segment “.blk_FC20”. Note that a type S7_BLOCK1_HEADER was applied to the data.

GenerateInterfaceDescriptionUnits: true to generate interface definition text units, false otherwise. The interface units are very useful to have a global look at the various fields that make up an interface, as well as (for data blocks), the default values and current values of those fields.

Example for a data block (DB 888):

1/2 – Part of the definition of DB 888. A notification indicates that the current bytes in the block differ from the default values. (See below)
2/2 – The actual values for the arrays at offsets 702, 1322, 2562.

MapActualBytesForDataBlocks: true to use the current (actual) bytes of a data block when mapping the block to VM, false to use the default values.

Actions and Navigations

Readers are encouraged to go through the JEB Manual6 pages related to Actions and Views to learn more about how to interact with the disassembly. Of particular interest, we recommend reviewing:

  • Cross-references and navigating references
  • Commenting, bookmarking
  • Renaming items, such as routines, labels
  • Viewing and creating types and prototypes
  • Checking calling conventions and processor registers for reference

Most actions offered by the GUI client are located in the Action and Native menu.

Most actions offered by the GUI client are located in the Action and Native menu.

MC7 Binary Interfaces

Processor internals

The S7 plugin uses two custom calling conventions:

  • __FC_CC for FC/SFC/OB blocks
  • __FB_CC for FB/SFB blocks

You may see their details by opening the Calling Convention Manager widget (in the Native menu)

Widget showing a custom calling conventions used by the S7 plugin, __FC_CC
Another custom calling conventions used by the S7 plugin, __FB_CC

To understand why two conventions area required to represent calls to sub-routines, we need to detail how sub-routine calls are implemented in MC7.

FC calls

The order of parameter indexing is important: IN, RET, OUT, IN_OUT.

Let’s assume FC 1001 with the following interface:

  0.0: WORD IN0
  2.0: DWORD IN1
  6.0: DWORD
  10.0: -

Note that this interface uses only primitives and does not have OUT or IN_OUT parameters.

In STL such an FC would be called, for example, like that:

  L     3000
  T     #tmp
  CALL  FC  1001
   IN0    :=#tmp              // symbolic ref to a variable on the stack
   IN1    :=DW#16#10002000    // literal immediate
   RET_VAL:=MD100             // address in memory for a return value

Which a compiler may translate to this piece of MC7 code:

FC 2001, calling FC 1001

Note the following:

  • The “call” was translated to a UC (unconditional call) and JU (unconditional jump)
  • The parameters are provided by reference, as raw DWORDs, just after the JU. The references are 4-byte MC7 addresses, whose structure was detailed in the previous section.

Reminder: MC7 address (4-byte): AAAAAAAA 00000XXX XXXXXXXX XXXXXBBB
where A is the area code, X the offset in bytes, B the bit position (0-7)

The area codes are as follows: (S7.AreaType)

  • I (digital input): 0x81
  • Q (digital output): 0x82
  • M (global memory): 0x83
  • DB (shared DB): 0x84
  • DI (instance DB): 0x85
  • L (local data, i.e. the stack): 0x86
  • V (previous local data, i.e. the caller’s stack): 0x87

With this laid out…

  • 0x87000000 can be translated as P#V 0.0, that is a reference to the first bytes/bits of the caller stack (the parameters are to be interpreted from the callee’s perspective). Indeed, the caller’s stack at 0 contains word 3000 (L 3000 / T LW 0).
  • 0x83000320 can be translated as P#M 100.0 (0x320=800), which matches what was assigned for RET_VAL in the original STL snippet.

Because of how the MC7 VM deals with locals, it is simpler for JEB to not treat those parameters as stack parameters. Instead, they are assigned to individual synthetic registers named PAR0, PAR1, PAR2, PARn (limited to 16 entries). Those registers can be seen in the calling convention definition for FC/SFC/OB, namely “__FC_CC”.

Let’s look at the code for FC 1001:

  L     #IN0
  L     #IN1
  T     #RET_VAL

Which was compiled to:

MC7 code of routine FC 1001 (the callee)

First, note the signature and prototype assigned by JEB:

void __FC_CC func_FC1001(WORD*, DWORD*, DWORD*)

As said above, in this example, parameters were provided by reference. The order follows the interface definition’s: the first parameter matches the first IN; the second parameter matches the second IN; the last parameter matches RET_VAL

What about other parameter types? Are all of them provided by reference? The answer is no. Some parameters are provided by value (obviously, they must be IN parameters as well). Others are provided by references to pointers or references to any variables.

  • Primitives (BOOL, BYTE, CHAR, WORD, INT, DWORD, DINT, REAL, DATE, TIME_OF_DAY, TIME, S5TIME) are provided by reference, i.e. a 4-byte MC7 address.
  • The special types TIMER, COUNTER, BLOCK_FB, BLOCK_FC, BLOCK_DB, BLOCK_SDB (16-bit, IN only) are provided by value (16-bit, zero-padded to fit a 32-bit slot).
  • The complex types DATE_AND_TIME (8 bytes), STRING (up to 256 bytes), ARRAY and STRUCT are provided by reference to a pointer referencing the actual data. (Special types are generated, more on this below.)
  • POINTER (10 bytes) parameters are provided by reference (to the pointer parameter).
  • ANY (10 bytes) parameters are provided by reference (to the any parameter).
OB Prototypes

Note that OB blocks are always assigned the following prototype:

void __FC_CC func_OBx()

FB calls

FB (Function Blocks) mode of invocation is different. A DB is provided along with the call. The DB (referred to as the FB’s DI – that is, instance Data Block – in this context) will contain the call parameters (IN, OUT, IN_OUT), along with the rest of the block’s static data (referred to as STATIC).

The order is important: IN, OUT, IN_OUT, STATIC.

Let’s assume FB 1001 to have the following interface header (TEMP omitted):

  0.0: WORD x
  2.0: WORD y
  4.0: WORD res
  6.0: WORD seed
  8.0: DWORD
 12.0: BOOL

It is expected that the DB provided during a call have the same or a compatible interface. In this example, we will pass DB 1001.

In STL, the FB would be called like this:

CALL  FB  1001 , DB1001
   x     :=W#16#7
   y     :=W#16#8
   iv    :=MW14

The parameters will be copied into the provided block’s (DB 1001) actual slots. Compilation of this code:

.code_FB1:00000046              func_FB1003      proc
.code_FB1:00000046 10 03                         BLD       3
.code_FB1:00000048 41 60 00 04                   =         L 4.0
.code_FB1:0000004C FB 7C                         CDB                  ;1
.code_FB1:0000004E FB 79 03 E9                   OPN       DI 1001    ;2
.code_FB1:00000052 FE 6F 00 00                   TAR2      LD 0       ;3
.code_FB1:00000056 30 03 00 07                   L         7          ;4
.code_FB1:0000005A 7E 56 00 00                   T         DIW 0      ;...
.code_FB1:0000005E 30 03 00 08                   L         8
.code_FB1:00000062 7E 56 00 02                   T         DIW 2
.code_FB1:00000066 12 0E                         L         MW 14
.code_FB1:00000068 7E 56 00 06                   T         DIW 6
.code_FB1:0000006C FE 0B 84 00+                  LAR2      P#DBX 0.0  ;5
.code_FB1:00000072 FB 72 03 E9                   UC        FB 1001    ;6
.code_FB1:00000076 FE 6B 00 00                   LAR2      LD 0       ;7
.code_FB1:0000007A 7E 52 00 04                   L         DIW 4      ;8
.code_FB1:0000007E 13 0A                         T         MW 10      ;...
.code_FB1:00000080 7E 52 00 06                   L         DIW 6
.code_FB1:00000084 13 0E                         T         MW 14
.code_FB1:00000086 FB 7C                         CDB                  ;9
.code_FB1:00000088 10 04                         BLD       4
.code_FB1:0000008A 65 00                         BE
.code_FB1:0000008A              func_FB1003      endp


  1. The current DI (since the caller is itself an FB) is saved by being transferred to DB
  2. The to-be instance data block is opened
  3. AR2 is copied to LD0
  4. IN and IN_OUT parameters are copied to the instance DB
  5. AR2 is to offset 0 (N/A here, useful in the case of multi-instance data blocks; note that the attentive reader may have noticed that the pointer is loaded with an area DB! Why not DI? Well, the area will be disregarded by the client code in the callee routine, only the offset part of the pointer is used. )
  6. The call is translated to UC
  7. The caller’s AR2 is restored
  8. IN_OUT and OUT parameters are read and transferred to their final destination
  9. The DI that was in-use before the call is restored

Unlike an FC call, the parameters are located in the instance data block. The transfer does not involve the local stack.

The prototype of FB methods uses the __FB_CC convention:

void __FB_CC func_FB1003(_DATA_FB1003*, DWORD)

They use two parameters:

  • The first one is a pointer to the associated data block type. It is stored inside the register rDI.
  • The second one is an offset inside this data block. For single-instance data block (common case), that offset, held in the register AR2, is 0. For multi-instance data blocks, it may differ. Note that the decompiler plugin does not support multi-instance data blocks at the time of writing.

OB1 local data

The OB1 may be the most important block of your Simatic programs. While it adheres to the general structure of OB blocks (that is, a parameter-less version of FC blocks), OB1 has an important specificity to keep in mind: the first 20 (0x14) bytes of its local area is set up with important fields when the block is invoked.

off  type           name        description
 00  BYTE           EV_CLASS    event class (0x11= OB1 is active)
 01  BYTE           SCAN_1      scan type (*)
 02  BYTE           PRIORITY    priority class (?)
 03  BYTE           OB_NUMBER   OB number (1)
 04  BYTE           RESERVED_1  -
 05  BYTE           RESERVED_2  -
 06  INT            PREV_CYCLE  run time of previous cycle (ms)
 08  INT            MIN_CYCLE   min cycle time since last start-up
 0A  INT            MAX_CYCLE   max cycle time since last start-up
 0C  DATE_AND_TIME  DATE_TIME   OB calling timestamp

(*) scan types:
1: completion of a warm restart
2: completion of a hot restart
3: completion of the main cycle
4: completion of a cold restart
5: first OB1 cycle of the new master CPU
Refer to the reference documentation for more details on scan types.

You may see that by checking the interface of an OB1 block loaded in your analysis project. It is likely (although not necessary) that the interface TEMP data (locals) will start with 6 BYTEs, 3 INTs, and 1 DATE_AND_TIME fields.

The native structure used by JEB to represent this header is called OB1_HEADER. You may examine it using the native type editor widget (menu Native, Type Editor).

Interface of an OB1 block. Native type OB1_HEADER examined in the type editor widget.

Other OB blocks also receive parameters on their stack upon execution. Refer to the S7 programming manuals for details.

Idiomatic Constructs

N-way branching

The way N-way conditional branching is implemented in MC7 is via the JL instruction.


      L     MB 100  // load m[100] inside ACCU1LL (=x)
      JL    labx    // default target (x>=5)
      JU    lab0    // target if x==0
      JU    lab1    // target if x==1
      JU    lab2    // target if x==2
      JU    lab1    // target if x==3
      JU    lab2    // target if x==4
labx: L     1
      JU    next
lab0: L     W#16#10
      JU    next
lab1: L     W#16#100
      JU    next
lab2: L     W#16#1000
      JU    next
next: T     #RET_VAL

This would get decompiled as something like:

    switch(x) {
        case 0: {
            v0 = 0x10;
        case 1: 
        case 3: {
            v0 = 0x100;
        case 2: 
        case 4: {
            v0 = 0x1000;
        default: {
            v0 = 1;

Decompiling MC7

The S7 decompiler plugin is a gendec 7 plugin. As such, the plugin adheres to the INativeDecompilerPlugin interface, and can itself be customized via INativeDecompilerExtension plugin extensions.

Decompilation works on per-function basis. Select the function, then hit the TAB key (or menu Action, handler Decompile).

The context-menu of a method provides basic actions.

The decompiler generates a child unit of type “c“. It is represented by the client as pseudo-C code rendered in a separate fragment. (See an example below.) The pseudo-code unit, just like the disassembly code, has a flexible output actionable via the Action and Native menus. If you position the caret on a line of code and press TAB again, you will be brought back to the closest corresponding MC7 code in the disassembly view, matching the pseudo-C code.

The decompiler does not decompile to SCL. The output is not meant to be recompilable. It is meant to provide a higher-level representation of complicated, verbose, MC7 code, markable and analyzable for reverse-engineering and analysis purposes.

Example decompilation of a block FC4

Special operators

The decompiler may create the following custom operations (underlying IR: IEOperation with a FunctionOptype):

  • ExtractOff(mc7_address) -> byte_offset: extract the offset from a 4-byte MC7 address. This is equivalent to “addr >> 3) & 0xFFFF”
  • ExtractBit(mc7_address) -> bit_position: extract bit from a 4-byte MC7 address. This is equivalent to “addr & 7”
  • ToNP(mc7_address) -> native_address: convert a 4-byte MC7 address to a native VM address
  • ToMC7P(native_address) -> mc7_address: convert a 32-bit native address to a MC7 address
  • ToMC7PPTR(native_address) -> mc7_address: convert a 32-bit native address to a MC7 address referring to a MC7 pointer
  • FPOP(fpval) -> result: the following floating point operations: FPOP= SQR, SQRT, EXP, LN, SIN, COS, TAN, ASIN, ACOS, ATAN.
  • IntToBCD(int_value) -> bcd_value: convert an integer to a binary-coded decimal value
  • ReadTimer(timer_number) -> value
  • ReadCounter(counter_number) -> value
  • GetDBAddress(db_number) -> native_address
    • along with GetOBAddress, GetFBAddress, GetFCAddress, GetSFBAddress, GetSFCAddress
  • GetDBLength(db_number) -> block size
  • BitAddr(byte_offset, bit_position) -> pointer: a native pointer not referencing a byte (i.e. bit_position != 0)


FC conversions and invocations

As a reminder, for FC blocks, the prototypes should be converted to:

  • for special type arguments (block, timer, counter): by value
  • for primitives type arguments: by reference: MC7 address to the actual data
  • for POINTER/ANY arguments: by reference: MC7 address to the actual data
  • for complex types: by double-reference: MC7 address to MC7 pointer to the actual data

However, when generating native prototypes for FC blocks, the converter does not do that for primitive type arguments: the generated prototype uses native reference types instead of MC7 opaque references.
e.g. a function (WORD,TIMER,STRING)
will have its native prototype set to (WORD*,WORD,MC7P_MC7PTR_STRING)

As for invocations: instead of rendering opaque MC7 references, such func1(0x87000010, 0x84001000), the decompiler will attempt to replace them by native references wrapped in ToMC7P or ToMC7PPTR operators, e.g.
func1(ToMC7P(&varY), ToMC7P(&varZ))


Below is a list of limitations, at the time of writing. Some limitations will disappear as the decompiler matures.

  • Some data types are not properly rendered by the AST component, e.g. time and date types. Most would be rendered as regular integers instead of being interpreted and rendered as pseudo strings.
  • The decompiler does not support multi-instance data blocks.
  • Nested bit operations, such as A(, O(, ), etc. are currently not translated and will fail a decompilation
  • The CPU is assumed to have 2 accumulators, not 4.
  • MCR (master-control relay) is disregarded.
  • The decompiler may fail converting MC7 pointers to native pointers (referencing the virtual memory).
  • Some stack variables, representing L-variables, may subsist and appear to clutter a decompilation output. The reason is that called FC’s have access to the stack of their caller (V area), and establishing guarantee that that area is accessed as intended is very hard to establish. Unsafe optimizers may clear variables when they are deemed unused; however, in the general case, many locals should stay in place.

Generally, decompilation of MC7 code presents challenges stemming from the execution environment of MC7 and the design of the MC7 virtual machine itself: multiple memory areas (no unified VM), unorthodox pointer structures, etc. While gendec deals with those constructs in a generic way and attempts to generate pseudo-C code best representing them, it will not succeed in producing the best or most readable code in many scenarios. Such issues will be ironed out by incremental upgrades. Power-users should also keep in mind that JEB offers an expansive API allowing them to craft all sorts of extensions, including decompiler IR optimizers or AST massagers.

Library functions

While SFC and SFB blocks are reserved for system uses, the common convention is to reserve the low ranges of FC/FB block numbers for library code not classified as system code, such as utility routines whose interfaces were standardized by the IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission).

For a number of reasons, it may be inconvenient or impossible to include those blocks in your JEB project. Consequently, how would a call to a library FC or a system FC be rendered, since their prototype is theoretically unknown? While gendec has several way to recover prototypes by heuristics, the S7 extension also ships with a database of library block types and numbers with their common name and interface.

Example: if a call to FC 9 is found, but no FC 9 exists in the project, the block library will be checked for a match. In this case, the block will be understood as being “EQ_DT”. Refer to the S7 system reference manuals for details on well-known library and system blocks.

Public API

Users may craft extensions, such as scripts and plugins, in Java or Python. The reference documentation for JEB public API is located at

The public types (classes, interfaces, unions) specifically exposed by the S7 analysis modules are located in the com.pnfsoftware.jeb.core.units.code.simatic package.

A course to the general JEB API is outside the scope of this manual. Users are encouraged to visit
as well as this blog to learn more on this topic.


This document’s original purpose was to be a usage manual for JEB S7 block analysis extensions.

It grew into a full-blown introduction to Simatic S7 PLC reverse engineering. While the first half is mostly tool-agnostic, the second half demonstrates how JEB can be used to speed up the analysis of S7-300/S7-400 PLC programs, from block acquisition to block analysis and code disassembly, interface recovery, and of course, decompilation.

This first draft will be updated and augmented in the future, as the extensions mature. Thank you for reading, and a big thank you to our users for your continued support!

Nicolas Falliere (nico at pnfsoftware dot com)
Twitter @jebdec, Slack @jebdecompiler

  1. The S7 analysis modules ( ship with JEB Pro, and are also available with JEB Demo, the trial version of JEB Pro.
  2. An analysis of the Stuxnet infection code targeting S7-300 devices by this author can be found in the Symantec paper (archived at
  3. “Simatic – Statement List (STL) for S7-300 and S7-400 Programming – Function Manual” (archived at
  4. The MC7 disassembler in JEB was implemented by analyzing the code generated by the Step 7 compiler.
  5. STL instruction set quick HTML reference (
  6. JEB Manual pages for Actions (
  7. gendec is JEB’s generic decompilation engine